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Exosomes (a type of extracellular vesicle that originates from cells and circulates in the blood) contain multiple types of proteins and RNA fragments that provide a fingerprint of the cells of origin. They are also involved in cell-to-cell communication and can be hijacked by cancer cells to evade the immune response, manipulate the tumour microenvironment and facilitate metastasis to other areas. Oxford researchers are applying their unique understanding of exosomes to better treat cancer, and utilise their potential to detect tumours.